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Querying data in components with the useStaticQuery hook

Gatsby v2.1.0 introduces useStaticQuery, a new Gatsby feature that provides the ability to use a React Hook to query with GraphQL at build time.

Just like the StaticQuery component, it allows your React components to retrieve data via a GraphQL query that will be parsed, evaluated, and injected into the component. However, useStaticQuery is a hook rather than a component that takes a render prop!

In this guide, we’ll walk through an example using useStaticQuery. If you’re not familiar with static queries in Gatsby, you might want to check out the difference between a static query and a page query.

How to use useStaticQuery in components

💡 You’ll need React and ReactDOM 16.8.0 or later to use useStaticQuery.

📦 npm install react@^16.8.0 react-dom@^16.8.0

useStaticQuery is a React Hook. All the Rules of Hooks apply.

It takes your GraphQL query and returns the requested data. That’s it!

Basic example

Let’s create a Header component that queries for the site title from gatsby-config.js:

src/components/header.js
import React from "react"
import { useStaticQuery, graphql } from "gatsby"

export default () => {
  const data = useStaticQuery(graphql`
    query HeaderQuery {
      site {
        siteMetadata {
          title
        }
      }
    }
  `)

  return (
    <header>
      <h1>{data.site.siteMetadata.title}</h1>
    </header>
  )
}

Composing custom useStaticQuery hooks

One of the most compelling features of hooks is the ability to compose and re-use these blocks of functionality. useStaticQuery is a hook. Therefore, using useStaticQuery allows us to compose and re-use blocks of reusable functionality. Perfect!

A classic example is to create a useSiteMetadata hook which will provide the siteMetadata to be re-used in any component. It looks something like:

src/hooks/use-site-metadata.js
import { useStaticQuery, graphql } from "gatsby"

export const useSiteMetadata = () => {
  const { site } = useStaticQuery(
    graphql`
      query SiteMetaData {
        site {
          siteMetadata {
            siteUrl
            headline
            description
            image
            video
            twitter
            name
            logo
          }
        }
      }
    `
  )
  return site.siteMetadata
}

Then just import our newly created hook, like so:

import React from "react"
import { useSiteMetadata } from "../hooks/use-site-metadata"

export default () => {
  const { title, siteUrl } = useSiteMetadata()
  return <h1>welcome to {title}</h1>
}

Known Limitations

  • useStaticQuery does not accept variables (hence the name “static”), but can be used in any component, including pages
  • Because of how queries currently work in Gatsby, we support only a single instance of useStaticQuery in a file

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